History of lungeing & long reining:
It is believed that the foundations of classical riding were laid as far
back as the 4th century BC by Xenophon.
Through Xenophon's teachings and scripts his method of quiet handling and no anger no blame has been proven time and time again.
In the 14th century Gianbattisa Piguarelli, founder of the French Academic Equitation School and his pupil Antoine de Pluvinel,
documented use of single pillar work for submissive suppleness and double pillar work in preparing for airs above ground. Pillar work
as currently used by the Spanish Riding School of Vienna is much less severe than when it was in used in itsí conception -
horses now work with their trainers in harmony when using the pillars as they are merely a tool to educate rather than dominate.
During the 17th century more people had greater reservations about using the pillars and by the end of the 18th century saw gradual
abandonment of single pillar work in favour of the lunge.
A continual decline in the use of the double pillars was also evident, being considered a major drawback against forward movement of the horse.
By the 19th century the concept of lunge work had become more recognisable to that which is used by many today.
In the 18th century Federigo Mazzuchelli was one of the first to write and recognise the use of driving reins as an alternative
to the severity of double pillar work.
Long reining has since then become more mainstream in educating the ridden horse and not solely for the use of harness work.